Any item owned by an individual or company that could be converted into cash
This includes stock, vehicles, office equipment, real estate, accounts receivable, etc.

Asset-Backed Borrowing
Secured business loans with assets pledged as collateral

Asset/Equity Ratio
Total assets divided by the shareholder's equity

Assets that a borrower pledges in order to secure a loan or other credit. Those assets can then be taken in the event of default on the loan.

Someone other than the borrower who signs a promissory note
In doing so, this person assume equal liability for the loan.

Debt Capital
Capital that is raised via loans, bonds, etc., that must be repaid with interest within a set period of time

Debt Ratio
Debt capital divided by total capital

Dilution of Ownership
The reduction in share value resulting when additional shares of common stock are issued, or convertible securities are converted
This equally reduces each shareholder's ownership of the company.

Equity Capital
Capital raised from a company's owners
Equity financing is done through the selling of common stock or preferred stock to investors.

A pool of money collected by investment companies from individual investors for purchasing securities in various companies

Personal Guarantee
The guarantee from the owner that in the event that the company cannot pay the loan, he or she will assume personal responsibility for it

Post-Money Valuation
The value of a company right after its latest round of financing
This amount is equal to the number of outstanding shares multiplied by the share price from the latest financing.

Pre-Money Valuation
The agreed upon value of a company right before its latest round of financing

Promissory Note
Take a look at this Sample Promissory Note.
An IOU, or promise, to pay back money borrowed
It usually takes the form of a signed agreement between to the lender and the borrower and specifies all of the terms of the loan (sample form).

Secured Loan
A loan backed by hard assets as collateral
A creditor may seize the assets used as collateral in the event of an unpaid loan.

Unsecured Loan
A loan not backed by hard assets as collateral, but solely on good credit of the borrower

The process of determining a company's (or asset's) current value